Cal-Adapt is an online resource for viewing and downloading data about projected changes in climate conditions and associated natural hazards. It has several tools that allow users to view customized maps and charts showing changes over time. Adaptation planners can easily look at future conditions in their communities and how severe the impacts of climate change may be. Users can also download the datasets behind these maps and charts, allowing them to prepare their own graphics and conduct their own analyses. UC Berkeley’s Geospatial Innovation Facility, developed Cal-Adapt, with support from the California Energy Commission.
California’s Climate Change Assessment is a series of reports looking at future climate conditions throughout the state and the consequences that may result from them. The reports bring together extensive academic research and other studies and provides detailed information about specific changes. The Fourth Climate Change Assessment includes a statewide report, a set of regional reports looking at the effects of climate change in different parts of the state, topical reports that reflect perspectives and issues of statewide importance, and a number of technical reports on focused topics (for example, the impacts of changing wildfire risks on California’s residential insurance market). The Fourth Assessment should not be confused with the Fourth National Climate Assessment, a similar document about climate change and its potential for harm, which looks at the entire United States. The California Natural Resources Agency, Governor’s Office of Planning and Research, and the California Energy Commission led preparation of the Fourth Assessment.
The Adaptation Clearinghouse is an online resource with links to California-specific climate adaptation and resilience resources. Users can filter resources by specific topics, such as public health, equity and environmental justice, or land use and community development. Under each topic is a summary of the issue and links to available resources. Users can further filter resources by type of resource, the climate change effects involved, the agencies behind the resource, and whether resources apply statewide or to specific regions. The Adaptation Clearinghouse also provides links to different climate datasets and case studies and example documents on numerous issues. The Governor’s Office of Planning and Research manages the Adaptation Clearinghouse.
CalBRACE is a project of the California Department of Public Health’s Climate Change and Health Equity Program, with an online toolkit to help plan for the public health impacts of climate change. This program also produces climate change and health vulnerability indicators, which provide local data on climate change exposures, sensitivities, and adaptive capacities that can be helpful when assessing human health vulnerabilities. The CalBRACE framework aligns with the four phases in the Adaptation Planning Guide, with the addition of an additional step “to project the burden of disease.” The CalBRACE framework also focuses on identifying existing health, environmental, and social conditions as well as projecting how health conditions combine with climate threats to impact the health and well-being of communities. It provides a framework for public health adaptation planning, technical information and methods for assessing climate-related health vulnerabilities, and examples of best practices for building health resiliency. The toolkit also includes case studies that other communities can reference.
CalEnviroScreen 3.0 is an online screening tool that identifies communities most affected by and vulnerable to the effects of many sources of pollution and population-based disparities. It aggregates state-wide environmental, health, and socioeconomic information to produce scores for every census tract in the state. A census tract with a high score is considered more disadvantaged than a community with a low score as a result of pollution burden and population characteristics. When overlaid with climate impact and exposure data, CalEnviroScreen can provide insight into built and environmental exposure factors that contribute to vulnerability.1 The most visible part of CalEnviroScreen is a mapping and search function, but the tool also allows users to view and download the data behind the assessment. CalEnviroScreen was developed by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.
CHAT is an online tool that provides detailed information about future extreme heat conditions across California. Users can view and download information about extreme heat for a specific location, including several weather variables, pollution levels, and demographic and land use factors that influence vulnerability to extreme heat conditions. The tool also has links to several other resources to help build resiliency to extreme heat events. The California Natural Resources Agency funded CHAT which Four Twenty Seven developed in partnership with Argos Analytics, Habitat Seven, and the Public Health Institute (PHI).
OEHHA assesses the health risks cause by environmental hazards throughout California. The mission of OEHHA is to protect human health and environmental through scientific evaluation of risks posed by hazardous substances. The indicators of climate change in California, used to develop CalEnviroScreen 3.0, were developed by OEHHA.
The California State Hazard Mitigation Plan (SHMP) is a summary of the threat posed by hazardous conditions in the state, strategies to mitigate hazardous events, and information about resources to support hazard mitigation. Because many of the hazards in the SHMP relate to climate change, it is a useful resource for better understanding the threat posed by these hazardous conditions and the state’s current efforts to mitigate them. The California Office of Emergency Services leads preparation of the SHMP.
MyPlan is an online tool that allows users to enter a location in California, such as a city or specific address, and view the potential hazards that may affect that location. The tool includes climate-related hazards, such as floods and wildfires, as well as non-climate hazards such as seismic activity. It brings together mapping data from a variety of sources. Users can browse statewide hazard maps and export maps and mapping data for other purposes. The California Office of Emergency Services developed MyPlan.
California’s Ocean Protection Council’s Climate Change Program publishes multiple resources meant to assist coastal communities with adapting to ocean-related climate hazards and building resiliency for oceanic assets. Resources include State of California Sea-Level Rise Guidance studies and reports on ocean acidification and its effects, and opportunities for grant funding on relevant issues. The Ocean Protection Council also works on issues such as marine pollution and sustainable fisheries, which may relate to climate change resiliency for some communities.
The California Coastal Commission developed Sea Level Rise Policy Guidance and Coastal Adaptation Planning Guidance: Residential Development to provide an overview of the best available science on sea level rise in California and recommend planning and regulatory actions for adaptation. These guidance documents are intended to serve as a multi-purpose resource and includes a high level of detail on many subjects pertaining to sea level rise. The Coastal Adaptation Planning Guidance: Residential Development guidance provides a range of land use policies to facilitate planning for resilient coastal communities.
The Building Blocks Guide is a comprehensive resource explaining requirements, state of practice, and useful examples under State Housing Element Law. The California Department of Housing and Community Development’s (HCD) Building Blocks Guide was created to assist jurisdictions in developing housing elements that address varying groups and other land issues. It also provides resources for local governments to build community resilience among vulnerable populations, including those experiencing homelessness and housing insecurity.
California Climate Change lists useful resources for both local governments and businesses to gather information on greenhouse gas emission reduction and climate change impacts. This resource has a collection of links to additional sites that fall under climate change impacts and GHG emissions. It is a “one-stop shop” for information on these topics.
Planning and Investing for a Resilient California, developed by OPR’s Technical Advisory group, is a guidebook for state agencies to integrate climate change considerations into every aspect of government. Its guidance on scenario selection, identification of vulnerable communities, community engagement, and fostering equity are applicable to local adaptation planning.
Developed by the Coastal Conservancy, NOAA, and the Sentinel Site Cooperative in the San Francisco Bay Area, the Sea the Future resource provides a platform that highlights all tools available for visualizing sea level rise in California. It has a filter and compare tool with filters such as geographic scope, shoreline processes, exposure analysis and projected flooding information display, to identify which sea level rise tool matches the user’s needs.
From Mountain to Cities, developed by the Alliance of Regional Collaboratives for Climate Adaptation, describes the interconnections between upstream rural communities, and downstream urban areas. This whitepaper focuses on the resources that the Sierra Nevada Mountains provide communities throughout the state and presents the need for urgent and ongoing collaboration to address current and future climate related hazards.
The Climate Ready Program, administered by the California Coastal Conservancy, provides grant funding to multi--benefit projects that use natural systems to assist communities in adapting to the effects of climate change. This program has awarded $10.7 million for 57 projects throughout the state that provide both adaptation and greenhouse gas reductions. Eligible grantees include government agencies, non-profit organizations, and federally recognized tribes with projects that use nature-based solutions, promote collaboration, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, address the needs of underserved coastal populations, promote on-the-ground demonstration projects, and incorporate outreach and education.
FEMA’s Local Mitigation Planning Handbook is a guidance document to help communities across the country develop hazard mitigation plans. Although hazard mitigation plans are not necessarily identical to adaptation planning efforts, there is significant overlap between the two. The guidance and resources in this handbook can also be used for adaptation planning. The handbook includes information about assembling stakeholders and conducting outreach, determining community capabilities, assessing the potential for harm, and developing hazard mitigation strategies. It also contains checklists and worksheets for use throughout the hazard mitigation process. The was last updated in 2013.
US Census Bureau’s Data.census.gov is an online database hosted by the US Census Bureau that allows users to view, download, and map results from the decennial census, the annual American Community Survey, and other specialized surveys and analyses carried out by the Census Bureau. This updated database also includes a mapping feature that allows planners to visually display the results of the data. Adaptation planners can use the website to understand the demographic and other socioeconomic characteristics of a community, such as how many residents belong to a particular frontline community.
The US Climate Resilience Toolkit is a set of national resources to assist practitioners in conducting climate adaptation work. It provides a number of tools for looking up climate change–related data, guidance documents on the climate adaptation process, and case studies on improving resiliency. The Climate Resilience Toolkit also includes videos and other training modules on adaptation-related topics. The toolkit is a program of the United States Global Change Research Program.
The Regional Resilience Toolkit, prepared by FEMA and EPA in partnership with the Metropolitan Transportation Commission/Association of Bay Area Governments, is a toolkit to help with regional disaster planning across multiple jurisdictions and with non-governmental partners. This toolkit provides a 5-step process with helpful worksheets and outreach materials, to help communities plan for resilience, or move from planning to action.
NOAA’s Digital Coast is a comprehensive platform for data, tools, and training for communities to address coastal issues. One-way adaptation-related resources can be accessed on the site by topic area, including adaptation strategies, coastal economy, coastal land cover, coastal storms, natural infrastructure, risk communication, vulnerability assessments, and water quality. This website provides data, information, and technical support that can be applied in California at state, regional, and local levels.
Federal Highway Administration Nature-Based Solutions. The Federal Highway Administration provides resources, pilot studies, webinars, and examples of nature-based solutions that help protect coastal highways from sea level rise, flooding, and coastal erosion. The implementation guide provides best practices for how and where nature-based and hybrid solutions can be used to improve the resilience of coastal roads and bridges. This resource also provides research and technical assistance from transportation practitioners across the country.
Guidance for Considering the Use of Living Shorelines was developed in 2015 by NOAA to provide insight on implementing a living shoreline along estuarine coasts, bays, and tributaries. The guidance document provides information for addressing shoreline erosion through natural solutions that add stability. It also discusses NOAA’s role in reviewing living shoreline projects in critical habitat, essential fish habitat, or protected areas.
The Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE) was launched in 2010 as a shared knowledge base for managing the natural and built systems in the face of climate change. CAKE includes case studies and documents from across the world. This resource also includes several tribal nation examples in the United States.
The Guide to Equitable Community-Driven Climate Preparedness Planning, prepared by the Urban Sustainability Directors Network in 2017, provides guidance on how to complete an equitable climate adaptation planning process. This guide provides background on inequities in planning, as well as a framework conducting an inclusive climate preparedness process. Table 8 of this guide demonstrates considerations and strategies that can be integrated into climate adaptation measures to account for social and climate justice inequities in communities.
The Greenlining Institute aims to advance economic opportunity and empowerment for people of color through advocacy, community building, and leadership development. This guidebook prioritizes the climate adaptation and community resilience needs of frontline communities and offers planning staff a step-by-step process for defining equity in measurable factors in policies and grant programs. These steps include embedding equity in the mission, vision, and values; building equity in the process; ensuring equitable outcomes; and measuring and analyzing for equity.
The Healthy Places Index, developed by the Public Health Alliance of Southern California, is an interactive mapping tool that combines 25 community characteristics into a weighted score that ranks census tracts across California for conditions that support health. It displays some climate change exposures, sensitivities, and adaptive capacities in “decision support layers” to assist in assessing climate and health vulnerability and planning for policy changes to support community resilience.
Mapping Resilience, prepared by the Asian Pacific Environmental Network, aims to raise the public visibility of the needs of frontline communities within statewide climate adaptation and resilience efforts. For adaptation planning, the report provides research and resources on communities disproportionately impacted by climate change–related disasters in California and lessons learned from examples across the US; key existing indicators, data, tools, and analytical frameworks for understanding the intersection of climate impacts, health and well-being outcomes, socioeconomic vulnerability, and adaptive capacity factors; and lessons learned from development and use of indicators in related fields (e.g., public health, environmental justice, and land use).
Community-Driven Climate Resilience Planning Framework was developed by the Movement Strategy Center and community-based organizations across the country to strengthen climate adaptation efforts through culturally relevant, democratic processes with meaningful community engagement. The primary audience of this resource is community-based organizations developing, advocating for, and implementing climate solutions; however, local government staff can use this resource to help increase cross-sector collaboration and increase the community’s voice and leadership role in the adaptation process.
The Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions developed a set of Coastal Adaptation Policy Briefs that provide engineering, financial, and legal and regulatory solutions for coastal resources. Each policy brief introduces coastal adaptation strategy, describes trade-offs and any legal considerations, and illustrates examples of projects along the California coast. The financial resources include buyout programs, conservation easements, geologic hazard abatement districts, and transfer of development rights solutions.
This toolkit, developed by the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals, contains templates and other resources to support tribal climate change efforts. It includes guidance on procedures and methods, worksheets for identifying the potential harm posed by climate change and developing policies in response to these vulnerabilities, and guidance for thinking about effective implementation. The toolkit also contains a list of tribal climate change assessments and adaptation plans from several different states.
Severe flood levels with a one-in-100 likelihood of occurring in any given year.
Affordable Housing Sustainable Communities
Adaptation Planning Guide
Adapting to Rising Tides
Making changes in response to current or future conditions (such as the increased frequency and intensity of climate-related hazards), usually to reduce harm and to take advantage of new opportunities. Climate change adaptation describes actions that address the projected impacts on all aspects of community function that may result from climate change. This can include impacts related to hazard events (flood, wildfire, drought, severe storms), as well as slow changes that affect agricultural, forestry, and fisheries productivity; ecosystem structure and function; and public health.
The “combination of the strengths, attributes, and resources available to an individual, community, society, or organization that can be used to prepare for and undertake actions to reduce adverse impacts, moderate harm, or exploit beneficial opportunities”. The ability to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to respond to consequence.
San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission
Best Management Practice
The practice of adding sand or sediment to beaches to combat erosion and increase beach width. It is not a long-term solution; eventually waves and storms will erode away the additional sand, and nourishment will have to be repeated.
The ability of tidal wetlands, seagrass, and mangrove habitats to sequester and store carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, helping to mitigate the effects of climate change.
Climate Action and Adaptation Plan
California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection
California Building Officials
climate action plan
California Air Resources Board
Cost-Benefit Analysis or Community-Based Adaptation
community-based participatory research
Community Choice Aggregation
Community Choice Energy
Carbon Capture and Storage
Center for Disease Control (Federal)
Consecutive Dry Days
California Department of Food and Agriculture
Coastal Data Information Program
California Department of Public Health
California Energy Commission
Continuous Emissions Monitoring System
The Council on Environmental Quality (White House)
California Environmental Quality Act
Compact Fluorescent Lamp
California Heat Assessment Tool
Combined Heat and Power
capital improvement program
Compressed Natural Gas
California Natural Resources Agency
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent
council of governments
California Public Utilities Commission
Climate Smart Agriculture
California Solar Initiative
California Independent System Operator
Governor’s Office of Emergency Services
California Building Resilience Against Climate Effects
California Certified Energy Rating & Testing Services
California Environmental Protection Agency
California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection
The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it in a carbon sink, a fixed molecule in soil, oceans or plants. Because of the amounts of carbon that are stored in soils, small changes in soil carbon content can have major impacts on carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
A natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores carbon for an indefinite period of times; the absorption of more carbon than can be released.
Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions, and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.
Climate justice is defined as “the concept that no group of people should disproportionately bear the burden of climate impacts or the costs of mitigation and adaptation."
A plausible and often simplified representation of the future climate, based on an internally consistent set of climatological relationships that has been constructed for explicit use in investigating the potential consequences of anthropogenic climate change, often serving as input to impact models. Climate projections often serve as the raw material for constructing climate scenarios, but climate scenarios usually require additional information such as the observed current climate.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. Climate models are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the climate system to projections of future climate.
An integrated approach to achieving greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions while also ensuring food security in the face of climate change.
The benefits of policies that are implemented for various reasons at the same time including climate change mitigation acknowledging that most policies designed to address greenhouse gas mitigation also have other, often at least equally important, rationales (e.g., related to objectives of improving public health, economic benefits and equity).
California Coastal Commission
A valued feature of a community that may be harmed by climate change. Community assets may include buildings and facilities, key services, ecosystems, economic drivers, and infrastructure.
A group of individuals organized by and for a particular community of people based on shared interests and/or attributes. The community could be defined geographically (e.g. a neighborhood), could contain members from diverse backgrounds, and/or could be defined on the basis of something like religious beliefs or a shared condition. Members may include various stakeholders, such as the public, elected officials, advocacy groups, and business leaders.
Roof surfaces designed to reflect radiation from the sun, reducing heat transfer into the building. Roof materials are typically light in color and have a high thermal emittance and solar reflectance.
Database for Energy Efficient Resources
Distributed Energy Resources
Department of Energy (U.S.)
Disaster Risk Management
Disaster Risk Reduction
Database of State incentives for Renewable Energy
Demand Side Management
Department of Water Resources (California)
Areas disproportionately affected by environmental pollution and other hazards that can lead to negative public health effects, exposure, or environmental degradation, or with concentrations of people that are of low income, high unemployment, low levels of homeownership, high rent burden, sensitive populations, or low levels of educational attainment.
The general name for a procedure to take information known at large scales to make predictions at local scales. The two main approaches to downscaling climate information are dynamical and statistical.
Energy Action Plan
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Electric Program Investment Charge
Energy Savings Assistance Program (IOU low income weatherization program)
Energy Use Intensity
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
Uses biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of an overall adaptation strategy to help people and communities adapt to the negative effects of climate change at local, national, regional and global levels.
The processes by which the environment produces resources utilized by humans such as clean air, water, food and materials. Ecosystems can be classified as: 1) Supporting services - the services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services, 2) Provisioning services - the products obtained from ecosystems, 3) Regulating services - the benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, and 4) Cultural services - the non-material benefits people obtain from ecosystems.
El Niño and La Niña are opposite phases of what is known as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. The ENSO cycle is a scientific term that describes the fluctuations in temperature between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific. The term El Niño refers to the large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate interaction linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. La Niña episodes represent periods of below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific.
The fair treatment of people of all races, cultures, and incomes with respect to the development, adoption, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
Equity is just and fair inclusion into a society in which all can participate, prosper, and reach their full potential
The central equity challenges for climate change policy involve several core issues: addressing the impacts of climate change, which are felt unequally; identifying who is responsible for causing climate change and for actions to limit its effects; and understanding the ways in which climate policy intersects with other dimensions of human development, both globally and domestically.
The process of transferring water through plants by evaporation from the land to the atmosphere.
The presence of people, infrastructure, natural systems, and economic, cultural, and social resources in areas that are subject to harm.
When a weather or climate variable exceeds the upper or lower thresholds of its observed range
An extreme weather event is significantly different from the average or usual weather pattern. This may take place over one day or a period of time. For example, flash floods, wildfires, and heatwaves
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Composed of trees including wood from the trunk of the tree, limbs, tops, roots, and foliage. The principal sources of forest biomass for energy production are: 1) trees killed or damaged by fire, insects, disease, drought or that have no other use; 2) trees grown specifically for energy production; and 3) trees removed to reduce hazardous fuel accumulations or improve forest health.
These communities experience the impacts of issues such as environmental pollution, climate change, and the economic crisis first and most severely. These communities are most often communities of color and low income.
Global Climate Model
Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund
Geographic Information Systems
Global Warming Potential
An approach to water management that protects, restores, or mimics the natural water cycle. It incorporates both the natural environment and engineered systems to provide clean water and conserve ecosystem values and functions.
Any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation, thereby trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride.
Healthy Soils Initiative
Heating Ventilation, Air Conditioning
An event or physical condition that has the potential to cause fatalities, injuries, property damage, infrastructure damage, agricultural losses, damage to the environment, interruption of business, or other types of harm or loss.
Sustained action taken to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk to human life and property through actions that reduce hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. Hazard mitigation can one component of climate change adaptation.
An urban area characterized by temperatures higher than those of the surrounding non-urban area. As urban areas develop, buildings, roads, and other infrastructure replace open land and vegetation. These surfaces absorb more solar energy, which can create higher temperatures in urban areas.
Also referred to as extreme heat events, these are prolonged periods of excessive heat, often combined with excessive humidity.
The cycle representing how drought, as a slow-moving natural disaster, tends to emerge under the radar screen, and then intensifies until people can no longer ignore it or wish it away. The cycle illustrates that when drought ends, people are often glad to forget about it and resume to business as usual; yet, it is also important to learn from these experiences.
California Infrastructure and Economic Development Bank
Integrated Climate Adaptation and Resilience Program
Investor Owned Utility
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
integrated regional water management
integrated regional water management plan
In the context of climate adaptation, the effects (especially the negative effects) of a hazard or other conditions associated with climate change. Impact is often considered the combination of exposure and sensitivity. Impacts are sometimes discussed in terms of direct or indirect impacts. Direct impacts on physical assets or immediate operations can lead to more indirect impacts on the broader system or community.
Observations or calculations that can be used to track conditions and trends. Indicators of climate change can communicate key aspects of the changing environment, point out vulnerabilities, and inform decisions about policy, planning, and resource management. For example, an indicator can be a record of global temperature showing the number of degrees by which the average global temperature for each year differs from the average global temperature during the last century.
A process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.
The submergence of land by water, particularly in a coastal setting.
An international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that agrees to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs and PFCs. The goal was to collectively reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% below the emission levels of 1990 by 2012.
local coastal program
Local Education Authority
Local Government Partnerships
local hazard mitigation plan
Tool for the systematic evaluation of the environmental aspects of a product or service system through all stages of its life cycle.
A natural alternative to bulkheads and seawalls that uses plants, sand, and limited use of rock to provide shoreline protection and maintain valuable habitat.
Municipal Owned Utility
Metropolitan Planning Organization
Adaptation efforts that worsen a situation, or transfer the challenge from one area, sector, or social group to another.
A form of 'soft' engineering. In most cases it involves breaching an existing coastal defense, such as a sea wall or an embankment, and allowing the land behind to be flooded by the incoming tide, thus setting back the line of actively maintained coastline.
Climate change mitigation refers to “a human intervention to reduce the human impact on the climate system; it includes strategies to reduce greenhouse gas sources and emissions and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks.”
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
National Integrated Drought Information System
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Governor’s Office of Emergency Services
Ocean Protection Council
Governor’s Office of Planning and Research
Office of Science and Technology Policy (White House)
Significant changes to the chemistry of the ocean that occurs when carbon dioxide gas (or CO2) is absorbed by the ocean and reacts with seawater to produce acid.
Publicly Owned Utility
Power Purchase Agreement
Public Purpose Program
Photovoltaic (as in Solar PV)
An agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gases emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.
The likelihood of hazard events occurring. Probabilities have traditionally been determined from the historic frequency of events. With changing climate and the introduction of non-climate stressors, the probability of hazard events also changes.
Resource Conservation District
Regional Energy Networks
Renewables Portfolio Standard
Regional Transportation Plan
"The capacity of any entity—an individual, a community, an organization, or a natural system—to prepare for disruptions, to recover from shocks and stresses, and to adapt and grow from a disruptive experience.” A community’s resilience is determined by its ability to survive, adapt, and thrive no matter what acute shock or chronic stressor it experiences.
Community resilience is the ability of communities to withstand, recover, and to learn from past disasters to strengthen future response and recovery efforts. This can include but is not limited to physical and psychological health of the population, social and economic equity and well-being of the community, effective risk communication, integration of organizations (governmental and nongovernmental) in planning, response, and recovery, and social connectedness for resource exchange, cohesion, response, and recovery.
Risk for the purpose of hazard mitigation planning, is the potential for damage or loss created by the interaction of hazards with assets such as buildings, infrastructure, or natural and cultural resources. For natural hazards, risk tends to be calculated based on evaluation of the probability (likelihood) of a hazard event occurring, vulnerability, and the event’s potential consequences. This method uses data from the past to establish the probability and, in the case of climate change, includes future projections of probability.
Strategic Growth Council
state hazard mitigation plan
Short-Lived Climate Pollutants
Sea Level Rise
Soil Organic Matter
The movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources and other consequences.
An increase in the mean level of the ocean - a change in global average sea level brought about by an alteration to the volume of the world ocean. Relative sea level rise occurs where there is a net increase in the level of the ocean relative to local land movements.
A wall or embankment erected to prevent the sea from encroaching on or eroding an area of land.
The level to which a species, natural system, or community, government, etc., would be affected by changing climate conditions.
A seasonal accumulation of slow-melting snow.
Social vulnerability is “the susceptibility of a given population to harm from exposure to a hazard, directly affecting its ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover.”
The temporary increase, at a particular locality, in the height of the sea due to extreme meteorological conditions (low atmospheric pressure and/or strong winds). The storm surge is defined as being the excess above the level expected from the tidal variation alone at that time and place.
technical advisory council
The level of magnitude of a system process at which sudden or rapid change occurs. For example, species diversity of a landscape may decline steadily with increasing habitat degradation to a certain point, then fall sharply after a critical threshold of degradation is reached.
Although it is common to refer to "traditional knowledge(s)" as individual pieces of information, this term also refers to traditional “knowledge systems" (TKs) that are deeply embedded in indigenous ways of life. These guidelines use the phrase "traditional knowledges" deliberately in plural form to emphasize that there are diverse forms of traditional knowledge and knowledge systems that must be recognized as unique to each tribe and knowledge holder because knowledges are emergent from the symbiotic relationship of indigenous peoples and places—a nature-culture nexus.
Urban Heat Island
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
United States Department of Agriculture
United States Geological Survey
This is the unpredictability of a system or model. Uncertainty in models can come from many sources; a lack of information, lack of technical ability to model complex processes, a lack of knowledge about a system or uncertainty over human behavior.
The care and management of tree populations in urban settings for the purpose of improving the urban environment.
Vehicle Miles Travelled
Climate vulnerability describes the degree to which natural, built, and human systems are susceptible “…to harm from exposure to stresses associated with environmental and social change and from the absence of capacity to adapt.” In hazard mitigation planning, for buildings and other structures, vulnerability means susceptibility to damage given the inherent characteristics of a particular structure. Its broader meaning is the level of exposure of human life and property to damage from natural and human-made hazards. Vulnerability can increase because of physical (built and environmental), social, political, and/or economic factor(s). In the case of climate change, vulnerability is often defined as the combination of impact and adaptive capacity as affected by the level of exposure to changing climate. Notably, impact is often determined by the combination of exposure and sensitivity, and vulnerability is considered a function of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity.
For climate change, it is an analysis of how a changing climate may harm a community and which elements—people, buildings and structures, resources, and other assets—are most vulnerable to its effects based on an assessment of exposure, sensitivity, the potential impact(s), and the community’s adaptive capacity.
Vulnerable communities experience heightened risk and increased sensitivity to climate change and have less capacity and fewer resources to cope with, adapt to, or recover from climate impacts. These disproportionate effects are caused by physical (built and environmental), social, political, and/or economic factor(s), which are exacerbated by climate impacts. These factors include, but are not limited to, race, class, sexual orientation and identification, national origin, and income inequality.
Vulnerable populations include, but are not limited to women; racial or ethnic groups; low-income individuals and families; individuals who are incarcerated or have been incarcerated; individuals with disabilities; individuals with mental health conditions; children; youth and young adults; seniors; immigrants and refugees; individuals who are limited English proficient (LEP); and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Questioning (LGBTQQ) communities, or combinations of these populations (HSC Section 131019.5, CNRA 2018).